Current Progress on Malaria Vaccines

Current Progress on Malaria Vaccines

Non-vaccine approaches for tackling malaria have made an impact in reducing the number of malaria cases and deaths but a vaccine would help tremendously towards malaria elimination. New sources of funding such as those from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, pharmaceutical companies and oil companies in the last decade has enabled rapid advances in malaria vaccine development. We are likely to see the RTS,S/AS01 vaccine to be licensed for use in the next few years despite its low efficacy.

Read Article →
Teaching Your Immune System to Fight Cancer

Teaching Your Immune System to Fight Cancer

by Litt-Yee Hiew Our immune system is naturally gifted with remarkable specificity, potency and memory. So far, no pharmacological treatment for any diseases could possibly…

Read Article →
The Imitation

The Imitation

by Nur Atikah Abdullah, Charles George Gajim, and Seti Faezah Rosli Disclaimer: the following article is a fictional piece that may or may not be…

Read Article →
Snake antivenoms: science, values and challenges

Snake antivenoms: science, values and challenges

Bites from venomous snakes can lead to snakebite envenomation (not poisoning), and antivenom is the only definitive therapy to date. Antivenoms used in current clinical practices are derived from antibodies of animals (e.g. horses) that have been immunised with one or a mix of snake venoms. However, the production of these biologics is highly costly, and there is no universal antivenom, as the effectiveness is limited by the different snake species and their geographical locality. The production and use of antivenoms can be optimised by unravelling the complexity of venoms, especially their immunogenicity and the dynamics-kinetics of venom-antivenom interplay.

Read Article →
A ‘Trp’ to the land of Kyns

A ‘Trp’ to the land of Kyns

Breakdown of the amino acid tryptophan through the kynurenine pathway impacts a plethora of immunological processes, ranging from the starvation of invading bacteria to the induction of immunotolerance and the modulation of neurological diseases.

Read Article →