Snake antivenoms: science, values and challenges

Snake antivenoms: science, values and challenges

Bites from venomous snakes can lead to snakebite envenomation (not poisoning), and antivenom is the only definitive therapy to date. Antivenoms used in current clinical practices are derived from antibodies of animals (e.g. horses) that have been immunised with one or a mix of snake venoms. However, the production of these biologics is highly costly, and there is no universal antivenom, as the effectiveness is limited by the different snake species and their geographical locality. The production and use of antivenoms can be optimised by unravelling the complexity of venoms, especially their immunogenicity and the dynamics-kinetics of venom-antivenom interplay.

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A ‘Trp’ to the land of Kyns

A ‘Trp’ to the land of Kyns

Breakdown of the amino acid tryptophan through the kynurenine pathway impacts a plethora of immunological processes, ranging from the starvation of invading bacteria to the induction of immunotolerance and the modulation of neurological diseases.

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Childhood vaccine controversies: the myths, the facts and the uncertainties

Childhood vaccine controversies: the myths, the facts and the uncertainties

by Dr Adli Ali Vaccine controversies and anti-vaccine movements are not something new. They began some 90 years ago in the early 20th century, even before…

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Superhero

Superhero

by Candice Lim “Mommy, I don’t wanna take the shot,” whimpered the little girl in my clinic this morning. She was dressed all in pink…

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Viruses as a cure for cancer?

Viruses as a cure for cancer?

by Suet Lin Chia At a Glance: Cancer has been haunting the human population for centuries. Despite the availability of various current treatments, the number of…

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